Tumor markers are substances that are released by cancer cells or produced by the body in reaction to a malignant tumor or benign condition. By measuring these biomarkers in blood, urine, or other fluids, they may be used to monitor the progress of a cancer, check for recurrence, or sometimes to help screen for, diagnose, or stage cancer. Most tumor markers are proteins, but DNA changes such as mutations and other alterations may also be used as biomarkers or tumor markers. A biomarker can be found circulating in bodily fluids or in a tumor tissue sample to help your doctor learn more about your cancer and determine treatment options. There are a number of reasons why a tumor marker test may be ordered:.
Breast Biopsy Markers
Can Titanium Markers for Breast Biopsy Cause Problems?
See the Tumor Markers fact sheet for more information. New tumor markers frequently become available and may not be reflected on this list. This list does not include the many tumor markers that are tested by immunophenotyping and immunohistochemistry to help diagnose cancer and to distinguish between different types of cancer. Some tumor markers listed below are targets for targeted therapy in multiple cancers but serve as tumor markers for only a subset of cancers. Cancer types: Liver cancer and germ cell tumors What's analyzed: Blood How used: To help diagnose liver cancer and follow response to treatment; to assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment of germ cell tumors. Cancer types: Multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some lymphomas What's analyzed: Blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid How used: To determine prognosis and follow response to treatment. Cancer types: Choriocarcinoma and germ cell tumors What's analyzed: Urine or blood How used: To assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment.
Breast Cancer HER2 Status
Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. NICE has issued rapid update guidelines in relation to many of these. This guidance is changing frequently.
Breast cancer tumor markers are substances produced by cancer cells or by your body in response to cancer. Doctors can test you for markers including cancer-antigen CA , CA They can be used to monitor the progression of cancer, evaluate the response to treatment, or discover a recurrence. They also may be able to predict who will have a late recurrence a recurrence 5 or more years after the diagnosis. Still, these tests do have limitations, as not all cancers cause an elevation in marker levels, and when the levels are elevated, it may be due to a different condition.